As human beings we are not well wired for the rational, dispassionate approach that economists love to think of as "normal".
Loss aversion refers to a bias in human psychology where we tend to prefer avoiding loss than acquiring equivalent gains. The principle here is that we'd rather not lose $100 than to gain $100. We tend to focus more on what we might lose, rather than on what we might get. The fear of loss can often reduce our ability to stay the course.
This was evident during the period of market volatility in late March, which saw some investors cashing out in a bid to protect a portfolio's existing value. By realising those losses at that point in time, it meant that those same investors were less likely to have benefited when the Australian sharemarket quickly moved back and regained much of those initial losses.
A way of addressing this is to frame your portfolio gains and losses as wide as possible and over a long term horizon and not take a narrow view at one point in time. For example if you focused on just your Australian share investments you had an emotional roller coaster ride through March/April. But what would it have looked like if you total portfolio view – including international shares, bonds and even your home in your total portfolio view.
Vanguard's Index Chart illustrates the value of a longer-term approach well with historical data showing that markets fluctuate from year to year but those who ignore the emotional swirl of short-term market conditions are inevitably rewarded for their patience and discipline in the long term.
This bias entails looking for information that supports our beliefs or choices. And during an ongoing period of market volatility, it can be particularly tempting to start thinking about changing your investment behaviour and in the process, seek out information that we think will help us make better investment decisions in the short term.
But consider this - we are told that the world is bracing for a second wave of coronavirus infections but in the same breath, we are also told that there is an 80 per cent chance of a vaccine before year's end. Would you sell your investments now to avoid another market correction because you are convinced that a second wave of infections is on its way, or would you hold on to your investments because you know for sure that a vaccine is almost here?
The reality is, we have no way of knowing which of the two scenarios will eventuate. Actively seeking out information that confirms your thoughts on any of the scenarios, or subsequently ignoring any data that suggests otherwise and then making an investment decision based on current information, is likely to hinder rather than help achieve your investment goals.
Again, the challenge is to be disciplined and stay the course and understand what you can – and what you cannot - control. In keeping to the investment strategy that you have carefully put in place – one that will endure in both the boon of a bull market and the stress of a bear market – you're still on track to achieve your investment goals over your investment horizon.
According to the best minds in psychology, herd behaviour is particularly relevant in the domain of finance and has on occasion, represented a major cause of speculative bubbles. During the March market volatility, it was not uncommon to hear many declare that now is the best time to invest in technology-related shares because they were booming or to invest in the health sector because a vaccine is imminent.
Are you buying bonds and moving into cash because your well-meaning uncle who's not far off from retirement advised you to do what he did, or are you buying equities because your much younger neighbour is convinced that this is 'the way to go'?
Rather than follow the crowd when making investment decisions that impact you alone and not the herd, you should take into account your unique circumstances and investment goals when executing on your strategy.
One strategy that you could deploy during volatile times is to spread your investments over a certain period of time. Rather than time the markets, you could instead try the dollar cost average method by putting regular contributions towards your investments until you get to your target asset allocation.
Cognitive biases are often hard to detect because they occur so naturally but learning and recognising how they can affect your decision making, especially in times of uncertainty, will be useful for every investor. And remember, this is much easier to do if you have taken the time to create an investment strategy tailored to your own risk appetite and investment objectives.
Understanding that we are all subject to biases as an investor is a powerful argument for the value of having a written financial plan that captures why you are investing and what are your personal goals. Then at times of market stress it can be retrieved from the filing cabinet (either real or digital) and used to either adjust or simply stay on course, accepting there may be well be some rough weather ahead.
Head of Corporate Affairs at Vanguard.
16 June 2020
BEc (Acc), MBA, CPA, FFin
David has been in the Financial Services Industry for nearly 30 years. He was one of the founding Directors of the successful Financial Planning and Stockbroking Practice, Henderson Gregory Forrest, for a decade. Prior to that, he held senior roles in companies such as ING, KPMG Accountants and AMP. David was previously Chairman of OAMPS Superannuation Trustee Board and currently serves as an independent Board Director for several companies.
David’s extensive experience in all forms of superannuation, including Self Managed Super Funds (SMSF), Defined Benefit Funds, retirement funding through Account Based Pensions, stockbroking with a focus on Direct Share Investment, Taxation/Remuneration Planning, Centrelink, Aged Care and business management, equip him to advise expertly on all aspects of Financial Advice.
Those with a particular interest in superannuation/SMSFs, direct share investment, salary packaging or applying for the Centrelink Pension will find his knowledge and ability in formulating and implementing creative, logical and simple wealth creation strategies a valuable asset.
David maintains a strong personalised client service focus, providing tailored solutions for clients.
David Forrest is an Authorised Representative of Integrity Financial (SA) Pty Ltd ABN 16 133 921 187 — AFSL No 334846
Business Finance Manager
B Bus (Acc), CPA
Michelle’s career has spanned across the Financial Services, Retirement Living and Aged Care industries working in the private sector, not for profit and more recently with the state government for over 20 years. Her experience extends to many facets of the financial services industry, having worked in superannuation administration, technical support and financial planning practice administration.
Commencing with AMP and subsequently working in commerce and accounting roles with companies such as Brambles, Adelaide Bank Retirement Services, ECH Inc and SA Health and Wellbeing, Michelle returns to financial services after working in practice financial management at Henderson Gregory Forrest. This wide range of experience from senior accounting and management roles has provided Michelle with a strong background in business administration.
With an astute financial acumen and keen interest in business improvement strategies, Michelle ensures the smooth running of the Integrity Financial Advisory practice providing valued management support to our personalised client service focus.
B Com, Dip FP
Darren joins the Integrity team as a strong technical specialist with almost 20 years’ in the Financial Services industry. He has extensive experience advising clients on how to build and protect wealth, prepare for retirement and retire comfortably.
Commencing with advising clients on direct equities for over 10 years at Baker Young, Tolhurst Noall, and ABN AMRO Morgans, his career expanded to providing holistic client advice, having operated his own financial services licence and company. Most recently having worked for a 'Big 4' bank, he has welcomed the more personalised ‘client first’ approach that is evident at Integrity Financial Advisory.
With a deep understanding of investment markets, he is appropriately qualified and authorised to provide direct share advice, as well as superannuation/SMSF advice, encompassing both investments and insurance.
Meticulous in his approach, he aims to deliver quality outcomes for clients by understanding their financial situation and needs before providing advice which is central to our advice process. Darren supports David in tailoring solutions for all client financial advice needs.
Darren Chalk is an Authorised Representative of Integrity Financial (SA) Pty Ltd ABN 16 133 921 187 — AFSL No 334846
Client Service Manager
Natasha commenced working in the financial services industry in June 2008 and is a new addition to the Integrity team. During the past 11 years, she worked closely with advisers providing administration support in a share broking and financial advice business.
Having successfully completed her RG146 accreditation in securities and managed investments and continued her studies to complete her competency in Superannuation, Natasha can ably assist with all aspects of fixed interest, cash management, portfolio administration, direct shares and client advice implementation.
Natasha takes time to ensure she understands our client’s financial goals and needs and believes in creating, preserving and utilising wealth through effective financial management as a key objective in helping clients.
Client Service Manager
Kelly has worked in the Financial Services Industry for over 10 years and has supported David since 2013. Kelly’s primary background is in customer service and administration.
On starting in the industry, Kelly initially focused on direct shares, stockbroking administration and client liaison. Since moving to the Client Service Manager role, Kelly has developed skills encompassing all aspects of financial planning including client advice implementation and term deposit management.
Kelly’s experience in the direct share environment, especially management of estates, provides a key part of the direct equity expertise in Integrity’s Client Service Team.
Returning from Parental Leave following the arrival of her second child, Kelly has developed further honed multi-tasking skills after juggling the demands of a growing family.
Client Service Manager
Jasmine has worked in the financial services industry for over 12 years in all areas of client administration, working with David since 2013.
Jasmine has extensive knowledge and experience in client service including implementation of advice, portfolio reporting, assisting with the establishment of Self Managed Super Funds (SMSFs), term deposit management and a long history of helping clients with their enquiries.
Jasmine’s attention to detail, yet gentle approach, means she is able to solve the trickiest of questions for our client community.
Jasmine has gained her Certificate III in Financial Services qualification.
Client Service Manager
Merrilyn has worked in the financial services industry for over 11 years in all areas of client administration, and is a new addition to our client services team, returning from Melbourne to join the team in June 2019.
Merrilyn has extensive knowledge and experience in client service including implementation of advice, managed fund administration, assisting with the establishment of Self Managed Super Funds (SMSFs) and process improvement for the previous practices she has worked with. Merrilyn’s experience with direct shares constitutes the other part of our administrative support for direct equity investments.
Merrilyn’s warm and caring nature continues to endear her to our clients and she has already established herself as a valued member of our team.